BDNF invigorates nerve cells in three ways. First, it stimulates neurogenesis, the growth of new nerve cells from your own stem cells. Second, it enhances neuroplasticity—your nervous system’s ability to reorganize your nerve pathways. Last, but definitely not least, it amplifies synaptoplasticity—making new synaptic interconnections between neurons by encouraging them to grow new tendrils that reach out and make new connections with nearby nerve cells. So BDNF gives you new brain cells that are more open and flexible and more communicative.
The BDNF generated during your exercise also increased the size of your brain. Each brisk walk or run adds just a bit of gray matter, but researchers have shown that the cumulative effect of regular jogging generates an annual 2 percent gain in brain size and cell count. Couch potatoes are headed in the other direction.
Given the above information, it should come as no surprise that the brains of AD patients have been found to contain significantly lower levels of BDNF than the brains of healthy patients and that restoring BDNF reverses neurodegenerative conditions.